Thursday, January 23, 2020

How Lost Lake has Influenced My Life :: Observation Essays

How Lost Lake has Influenced My Life One day when I was five years old I recall my grandfather asking "Steve, why don't, you go with us to Minnesota next week?" My grandfather was a very important person to me, until he died in 1986. I spent every possible moment of my life either with him or thinking about him. Everything he loved, I loved, and vice-versa. Being bored with my present lifestyle in Peoria and excited about traveling with my grandfather, I took up his offer. After a day long car ride with my father, uncle, and grandparents, I arrived at the location that would forever influence and inspire my life: Lost Lake, Minnesota. I first remarked on the cabin we were going to stay in, for it reminded me very much of the cabin on Log Cabin pancake syrup. I was also surprised at the trees: along with the beautiful pines were these trees with white bark. I asked my grandfather what kind of trees they were, and he told me that they were birch trees. I thought he said "perch", figuring that the trees were named after a species of fish common in the lake. When we went out on the lake to fish I caught a bass on the first cast of my fishing career. My excitement was colossal. While we were fishing I heard a sound I had never heard before: the call of the loon, the state bird of Minnesota. This haunting sound is the trademark of the North Woods. Its sound is quite similar to a moan in a horror picture. Since I experienced all of these new things while having the time of my life, I fell in love with the fish, the loons, and the birch trees. These feelings would stay with me forever. Many of the things I witnessed on my first trip to Lost Lake closely reflect primary interests in my life now. That smallmouth bass introduced me to one of my very favorite hobbies: fishing. I now go fishing at every possible opportunity. Unfortunately, central Illinois is not blessed with fishing lakes, so my fishing is limited to local farm ponds and creeks. I try to go fishing at least once a week. After seeing those mysterious white trees I became very interested in studying trees. Today I can identify any tree anywhere in the United States.

Wednesday, January 15, 2020

Business Research Method – Volkswagen.Doc

I. Rational II. Situational Analysis III. Theoretical background IV. Conceptual Model V. Research Design VI. Sources I. Rational: According to James R. Healey (2011), reporter for USA Today, customers have lost confidence in Volkswagen’s quality. Volkswagen has been subjected to a real loss in the perception of its customers regarding its cars quality. This situation results mainly from a quality problem. In fact, according to Marty Padgett (May 14, 2007), for the website  www. thecarconnection. om: â€Å"The CEO of Volkswagen of America admits the company generated a lot of ‘venom’ with the massive quality problems it experienced earlier this decade. † This position is emphasized by a Hallmark representative who observed: â€Å"Volkswagen representatives point out that the company's scores are improving, which is true. But so is almost everyone else's. Shame on us that we haven't moved up the ranking. † Volkswagen had difficulty recognizing the pr oblem as evinced by Trahan’s 2010 position on this matter. He was effectively thinking that the brand did better that it got credit for.Nevertheless, according to James R. Healey (2011), for USA Today, the company now seems to be taking the problem seriously since the beginning of 2011. â€Å"We have some trouble in IQS that we have to fix† remarked Trahan earlier this year. In the 2011 IQS, Volkswagen owners reported an average of 131 problems per 100 cars, putting the company into a tie with Mini for 29th  among 32 brands. The best was Lexus at 73/100, and the worst was Dodge at 137/100. Volkswagen’s score in 2010 was slightly worse than Dodge’s in 2011 at 135/100. That said, the company is still struggling to improve his score.According to the 2010 IQS report, Volkswagen score was only slightly worse than the 2011 one, with 135 problems per 100 cars. Historically, Volkswagen has been known for the quality of its cars; quality is measured by a carâ₠¬â„¢s reliability and its ability to make life easier for owners. To improve Volkswagen’s IQS score and thus reverse the trend in the US, the brand should reevaluate its quality standards that originally established its reputation. By doing so, Volkswagen could maintain its leading position in Europe while improving its market share in the US. This could enable the company to remain the most profitable automotive brand.What position should Volkswagen take on the current quality situation? What are the causes of such loss? What departments should Volkswagen restructure to avoid the quality problems? II. Situational Analysis: The brand has always been known for its reliable cars. Jason Chavis (2010), contributor for the website www. ehow. com, easily stressed it out by reminding that, throughout the eighties and the early nineties, Volkswagen was plagued by a number of quality control issues, particularly in its American market. This resulted in a new goal for the company. Volk swagen wanted people to know that driving was fun again.The famous â€Å"die deutsche Qualitat† motto results from this. Nevertheless, things have changed; the quality of Volkswagen products is recently decreasing. The Volkswagen Annual Report 2010 made obvious that Volkswagen does not really realize that its Quality Assurance is not as reliable as it used to be. The report clearly explains that the aim of Volkswagen is â€Å"to secure a pole position in terms of customer satisfaction and brand loyalty†. The problem is that Volkswagen needs to do more than securing a pole position. Volkswagen needs to reach this position. For instance, the J. D. Power – a ebsite providing consumers information by using consumer satisfaction data collected to help them in their buying decisions – and Associates 2011 Initial Quality Survey illustrates this situation quite well: Volkswagen reports 131 problems per 100 vehicles. This is very close to the last one, Dodge, with 137. To make a good comparison, Lexus is first with 73 problems per 100 vehicles. This situation is stressed by the fact that people seem not to trust Volkswagen anymore. As we can easily see in the Consumer Reports' 2011 Car Brand Perception Survey, Volkswagen has received one of the worst ratings.The results are given in a chart on wich figures are aggregates, reflecting a brand's total perception level across seven areas. Volkswagen received one of the worst ratings, with an overall score of only 19. To compare, the lowest rating is given to Isuzu with 2 and the best rating is for Toyota with 147. Volkswagen does effectively not seem to have the image it used to have: the image of all German car manufacturers. Nevertheless, despite all these problems, the German car manufacturer’s Annual Report 2010 shows the willingness of the brand to keep the customers in the heart of the its decision.Although, Volkswagen says in this report that its competitive advantages are not secu red through product quality and appeal alone. The brand reminds the theory following which customers’ loyalty to a specific brand is also influenced by the quality of service they receive. After-sales and customer service in the Volkswagen Group focuses primarily on establishing and maintaining long-term relationships with customers and partners worldwide. Its aim is to captivate customers with their outstanding commitment to good service combined with Volkswagen’s high quality standards.But, as explained before, these standards are not that high. In fact, the current situation is that customers do not trust Volkswagen quality as they used to. This is due to a lot of reported quality problems. Nevertheless the brand has now taken into account this issue and now understands that it has to enhance the quality of their cars. According to www. businessdictionary. com, the brand image is developed over time through advertising campaigns with a consistent theme and is authen ticated through the consumers’ direct experience.To summarize the situation, the downswing in the perception of Volkswagen brand image is due to the last part of this definition. The company has failed to make the consumers enjoy the experience of having a Volkswagen car. As explained before, this is mainly due to the high number of problems experienced by consumers. In order to improve their brand image, the company has to improve its IQS score, which would prove to the consumer that Volkswagen cars are as reliable as they used to be, which would consequently improve the company’s brand image. III.Theoretical background: According to Narasimhan, Ram, Mendez and David (2001) and the Wacker Theory (1989) on quality and evaluative judgment  «Product’s improved quality will take several periods of good performance before customers will recognize its performance as being related to quality†. This means that customers’ point of view regarding brandsâ⠂¬â„¢ quality will not change overnight. It will takes time to prove them that things have changed because customers are more and more dubious and because it takes time to have feedbacks concerning quality.That said quality is not the only factor when it comes to purchasing a car. Indeed, according to Nadia Huitzilin Jimenez Torres (October 2007) from the Universidad de Burgos  «Consumer purchasing decisions relating to foreign products are influenced by economic, psychological and sociological factors ». a. The economic factor: According to the neoclassical school of thought, consumers are rational. They make buying decisions toward getting the most out of everything. They just take into factor the economy of use, convenience, efficiency in use, dependability in use and finally improvement in earnings.Nevertheless in practice, these elements aren’t the only ones used or often poorly applied. Indeed, psychological and sociological factors are also used when making a buyin g decision. b. The psychological factor: Psychological factors affect the way consumers think and behave while making a buying decision. For example some consumers do compulsive purchases because of their mood, which often are completely irrational. According to Black, Donald W. (2007), Compulsive buying disorder (CBD) is characterized by excessive shopping cognitions and buying behavior that leads to distress or impairment. . The sociological factor: This factor is highly important for companies for whom brand image result from reputation. In fact many consumers from all around the world base their buying decision upon stereotypes. Sander Gilman (1985) argued that stereotypes are representations that are not accurate, but a projection of one to another. According to this definition the fact that many people believe that â€Å"Germans make good products† is a stereotype. This phenomenon might result to a biased representation of a product quality.A company can benefit from th e good image of another brand because they both are from the same country. This proves that the county’s reputation helps consumers to discriminate between firms and products they are not familiar with. Consumers can also be influenced by social factor. One can buy a product from the same brand his idol or friends wear because he wants to look like him or them. This is also true with word of mouth, which makes people like or dislike products. As we have seen many factors influence the perception of quality.This diagram summarizes the steps that a consumer follow when analyzing a brand’s quality: [pic] The reputation results from the level of advertising and the brand’s reputation. Added to the perceived monetary price and the consumer’s perceived features of the good, it results to the consumer perceived quality of the product. IV. Conceptual model : [pic] Hypothesis: 1. The more adapted the communication message, the greater the brand ______image is 2. T he better the reputation, the greater the brand image is 3.The better the anterior experience with the product, the greater ______the brand image is 4. The better the media planning, the greater the brand image is V. Research Design a. Nature of proof: A correlational study seems the most adapted in this situation. This will allow us to delineate the important variables associated with the problem. These variables are the communication, the reputation, the customer’s anterior experience. We want to know how the potential and the already granted customers think of Volkswagen. It is now obvious that the study will be a descriptive one. . Unit of analysis: We want to know how many of the population would be interested in buying a Volkswagen car, depending on their opinion about the brand. Thus, we decided to stratify our sample in three groups: country, sex and age. c. Sampling: Stratified sample: [pic] d. Interference of the researcher As the study is a correlational one, this will take place in the same natural environment in which employees normally function, thus in noncontrived settings. Moreover, this kind of study is conducted with minimal interference of the researcher, such as manipulation of variables.According to all these elements, we clearly face a field experiment. e. Source of data & data collection methods: In order to get the most accurate sources, the sources that matched as good as possible, we will use primary data. To collect them, we have prepared one interview, one questionnaire and two observations. The first one, the interview, deals with the variable of the communication; the second one, the questionnaire, is taking care of the reputation; the two last ones deal with the previous experience of customers and the communication. f.Managerial implications: g. Gantt-chart: 1. The more adapted the communication message, the greater the brand image is. Interview : 1) Age / Sex / Nationality / Occupation 2) Do you currently own a Volkswag en  ? If yes  : Why have you bought one  ? If no  : have you own one in the past  ? – If yes  : Why have you changed  ? – If no : Why  ? 3) Have you ever seen a Volkswagen advertisement  ? If yes  : on which media did you see it  ? Do you remember it well  ? Do you remember what was the message communicated during the advert  ? If yes : Did you feel concern by it ?Do you think there could be a better ccccccccccccccccccccccccccccmessage (open question) ccccccccccccccccc Did that make you want to own one  (open question  : why  ? ) ? If no  : for what reason do you think you have never seen one  ? What did you think about Volkswagen 5 years ago ? [pic] Observing 1. Observation of the number of returns in the selected country 2. Number of person who has replaced their Volkswagen by another Volkswagen VI. Sources: – Marty Padgett (May 14, 2007), VW Focused on Prices, Quality, http://www. thecarconnection. com/news/1014959_vw-focus ed-on-prices-quality; James R. Healey (2011), VW: We know you're nervous, but our quality is improving http://content. usatoday. com/communities/driveon/post/2011/08/vw-quality-problems-warranty-costs–/1 – Jason Chavis (2010), History of the Volkswagen Brand http://www. ehow. com/facts_4966661_history-volkswagen-brand. html – The Volkswagen Annual Report (2010), http://www. volkswagenag. com/content/vwcorp/content/en/homepage. html – Syvetril Perryman (2011), J. D. Power Associates 2011 Initial Quality Survey http://businesscenter. jdpower. com/news/pressrelease. aspx? ID=2011089 Consumer Reports' 2011 (January 2011), Car Brand Perception Survey http://www. consumerreports. org/cro/cars/new-cars/news/2011/01/2011-car-brand-perception-survey/overview/index. htm – Narasimhan, Ram, Mendez, David (2001), Wacker Theory (1989), Strategic aspects of quality: A theoretical analysishttp://findarticles. com/p/articles/mi_qa3796/is_200101/ai_n8943712/? tag=co ntent;col1 – Nadia Huitzilin Jimenez Torres (October 2007), The purchase of foreign products: The role of firm’s country-of-origin reputation, consumer ethnocentrism, animosity and trust http://www3. va. es/empresa/uploads/dt_13_07. pdf – Sander L. Gilman (1985), Difference and pathology: stereotypes of sexuality, race and madness – Black, Donald W. (February 2007), A review of compulsive buying disorder http://www. ncbi. nlm. nih. gov/pmc/articles/PMC1805733/? tool=pmcentrez – Uma Sekaran & Roger Bougie (2009), Research Methods for Business: A Skill Building Approach – Janine Frauendorf (2006), Customer processes in business-to-business service transactions

Tuesday, January 7, 2020

Adoption and Nature vs Nurture - 1028 Words

Babe Ruth is arguably the greatest baseball player of all time. Bill Clinton held the highest office in the free world, President of the United States. J.R.R. Tolkein authored one of the most successful fiction book series ever in the Lord of the Rings. Steve Jobs created on of the most successful computer businesses in the world, in Apple Co. What do these men have in common? They were all adopted. Adoption plays a large role in the development of an individual. Adoption plays a role in the long time psychological debate of â€Å"nature vs. nurture†. This paper will address the nature vs. nurture debate, how adoptions plays a role in the debate, give a history of adoption, and tell the story of a personal friend who was adopted and†¦show more content†¦The affects that adoption plays on the development of an individual are somewhat difficult to gage. Researchers tend to agree that is indeed does play a role on the development of a person. Children who are a dopted very early in their lives tend to have a better outcome on their life than a child who is adopted at an older age. There is a study in which shows that the later the adoption took place, the more trouble the person seemed to have. Research has also shown that that adopted children and adolescents had more psychological problems and trouble in school. A large study also found adopted people was more likely to have a learning disability (Santrock, 2009). Not all the research about adopted children is negative however. One study shows that adopted individuals tended to be more altruistic, caring, and supportive of others (Santrock, 2009). The later research is what I have found to be true in my own experience with adopted children. My very good friend Justin Jahanshir is adopted. Justin was born to an alcoholic, drug-abusing mother. Justin was taken in and adopted by Sharom and Shelly Jahanshir as an infant. Justin was raised in a warm and very loving family. He is absolutely nothing like his mother. I asked Justin where would he be in life if he was kept with his mother and he responded, â€Å"I’m pretty sure I would be in jail.† Justin has recentlyShow MoreRelatedAdoption : Nature Vs Nurture1216 Words   |  5 PagesEric Fraley 4th hour English 3 Mrs. Laluzerne Jan, 12, 2016 Adoption Nature vs Nurture What makes someone an unique individual? Centuries of ancestors, genetics, evolution and heredity, or is what makes someone who they are based simply on how they were raised and what sort of environment they were raised in? The idea of Nature vs Nurture was created in 1869 in a book called Hereditary Genius by Francis Galton. In his book, he explains his findings on his exploration of the inheritance andRead MoreEssay on Nature vs Nurture: Twin Studies and Adoption1958 Words   |  8 PagesThe nature- nurture debate has many different case studies, which often questions environmental and hereditary aspects of the nature- nurture debate. A tangent which is focused on in this essay is how the case studies of schizophrenia and IQ, specifically affect twin and adoption studies. This essay will firstly, give a brief outline of the nature-nurture debate and the definitions of twin and adoption studies. Secondly, it will illustrate two main case studies, which are IQ and Schizophrenia s tudiesRead More Nature vs Nurture: Genes vs Environment Essay1490 Words   |  6 PagesIntroduction A debate between psychologist, scientists and philosopher thinkers on the spectrum of ‘nature vs. nurture’ arose concerning human development. In the nature versus nurture debate, the term nature refers to the genes we inherit while the term nurture refers to our outside environment (Nature vs. Nurture: Twin and Adoption Studies). This debate of ‘nature vs. nurture’ has existed for centuries and up to now it is still a topic of major discussion although at present time. Human developmentRead MoreNature vs. Nurture1218 Words   |  5 Pagesdifferent people with different interests and preferences? Or did the environments that they grew up in play a part in making who they are? In the nature vs. nurture controversy, nature proclaims that our genetic make-up plays the primary role in human development, while nurture declares that our environment dictates our development. The nature vs. nurture controversy is an age old question in the scientific and psychological world with both camps having evidence to support their theories. The controversyRead MoreNature Vs Nurture Centers On How Much Of A Person s Biological, Cognitive, And Social Development1541 Words   |  7 PagesINTRODUCTION Nature Vs Nurture centers on how much of a person’s biological, cognitive, personal and social development can be attributed to either the genetic (hereditary) determinism i.e. nature or the environmental determinism i.e. nurture. Charles Darwin (1809-1882) noted that â€Å"Physical characteristics that promote survival of the individual are more likely to be passed on to offspring because the individuals with these characteristics are likelyRead MoreEssay Genetic and Environmental Contributions to Substance Abuse1125 Words   |  5 PagesThe question of nature vs. nurture has been the focus of many debates, especially within the discipline of psychological sciences. This paper will examine the views that exist regarding the importance of contributions to the risk of addiction, specifically, genetic (nature) vs. environmental (nurture) contributions through a review of the existing literature. The nature-based view is that expression of addiction (phenotype) is based upon genetic predisposition (genotype). Numerous genetic studiesRead More Genetic Factors and Criminal Behavior Essay709 Words   |  3 Pagesthat just because someone has a predisposition to a certain behavior doesn’t mean that the person will take on that behavior. They also look at Genetic Epidemiological Studies. These three studies deal with twins in relation to their families and adoption. These studies were set up to further look at both environmental and genetic influence in relation to criminal conduct. Looking at the relationship between biological, adoptive parents, and children (some twins, others not) and the results of beingRead MoreThe Importance of Nature and Nurture Essay1036 Words   |  5 Pages The nature versus nurture debate has lasted centuries due to the difficulty of separating genetic and environmental factors in humans. Studies on behavioral genetics measure similarity between subjects, but cannot locate its origin. For this, a control must be present, leading scientists to twin research. Identical twins have the exact same DNA, differing from fraternal twins with only 50% similarity, no greater than average siblings. Identical twins offer a natural experiment that allows researchersRead MoreAre Criminals Born or Made?1016 Words   |  5 PagesPsychologists have come up with many theories and reasons about why people commit crimes. The two main explanations lie in genetic and environmental factors, which relates to the nature and nurture debate. Studies have been carried out to explain criminal behavior. Some suggest that criminals are born; these are twin and adoption studies. On the other hand there are also studies that have been conducted to prove that criminals are made by society; these include the social learning theory and labelingRead MoreNature Vs Nurture : Assignment Written By Jessica Lovelock1386 Words   |  6 PagesNature Vs Nurture – Assignment written by Jessica Lovelock The Nature-Nurture debate has been scrutinised by psychologists for over a hundred years and, more recently, by biologists in the field of cognitive science. It inquires as to the influence of both ‘nature’; the hereditary present factors of a person determined by biological genetics; ‘Nurture’ is based on circumstance, the belief that the person we are is purely influenced by our environment, upbringing and circumstances that we encounter

Monday, December 30, 2019

The Suicide Of A Patient Essay - 970 Words

â€Å"The suicide of a patient suffering from an incurable disease, effected by the taking of lethal drugs provided by a doctor for this purpose,† is the dictionary definition of assisted suicide, or assisted death. Much debate has taken place over whether or not this should be a right of the terminally ill, and whether a doctor can grant that wish. Although modern medicine has brought a multitude of benefits to humanity, it cannot relieve the pain and suffering associated with the dying process. Kate Pickert, for TIME Magazine, notes that when people hear the term â€Å"euthanasia† they think of the battle in the 1990’s, featuring Jack â€Å"Doctor Death† Kevorkian. Slowly, countries, or at least individual states, have chosen to declare assisted suicide as legal or illegal based on a variety of reasons but religion being the most prominent reason. The idea of assisted suicide is considered illegal in considering the Biblical Commandment, which states Thou Shalt Not Kill. Despite this, some christian societies are considering the idea. Australia legalized it in 1995 but unusually, recanted that law in 1997. Also in 1997, the United States declared that assisted suicide was not a constitutional right but years later in 2006, the Supreme Court decided that such severe cases should be up to the individual states. This ruling contributes to Oregon’s â€Å"Death With Dignity† law, which was actually in place since 1997 but in 2007, â€Å"so me 46 people committed suicide in Oregon under the law† (Show MoreRelatedPhysician Assisted Suicide And The Rights Of Patients1523 Words   |  7 PagesPhysician-assisted suicide needs to be recognized by the federal government to show terminally ill patients that their right to autonomy is not being ignored. The Bill of Rights of Patients was constructed to outline just this. According to the American Cancer Society, â€Å"the American Hospital Association drafted a Patients’ Bill of Rights to inform patients of what they could reasonably expect while in the hospital.† One of the notes stated in the Bill of Rights of Patients is the right to autonomyRead MoreUse Of No Suicide Contracts With Mentally Ill Patients1439 Words   |  6 Pagesof the evidence around the use of no-suicide contracts with mentally ill patients experiencing suicidal ideation. It will ask the question â€Å"When treating mentally ill patients, does the use of ‘No- Suicide contracts reduce suicide outcomes?†. Suicide is a global concern and given the current social and economic difficulties current society face, is imperative we continue to consider effective suicide prevention strategies. The literature suggests that no suicide contracts are widely used within thisRead MoreHumane Essay : Patient Assisted Suicide Is Humane1362 Words   |  6 PagesPatient Assisted Suicide Is Humane Every year, thousands of people are diagnosed with pancreatic cancer. The further along their disease progresses, the more they suffer both physically and mentally. The humane thing to do is to allow these people to choose whether or not to end their lives before this painful and inevitable conclusion is reached. Over 30,000 people are diagnosed with pancreatic cancer each year (Pancreatic Cancer 1). The pancreas is a small gland located near the stomach. TreatmentsRead MoreEuthanasia And Assisted Suicide : A Patient s Choice1742 Words   |  7 Pages Euthanasia and Assisted Suicide: A patient s choice in their type of death. When a patient is terminally ill or is experiencing extreme pain, often Euthanasia or Assisted Suicide can both be plausible options to end any suffering. Euthanasia is currently legalized in seven countries and parts of the United States (New Health Guide). This number is not likely to increase soon because of the high controversy, which is due to the very serious topic of this matter: a person s life. The generalRead More The Effect of Serotonin on the Brain in Suicide Patients Essay669 Words   |  3 PagesThe Effect of Serotonin on the Brain in Suicide Patients While this writer had some rudimentary knowledge of the impact serotonin had on the brain, Why? The Neuroscience of Suicide by Carol Ezzell piqued my curiosity on the role levels of serotonin and the process by which it is absorbed in the brain affect suicidal patients. This article was recently posted on the Neurology and Behavior website as supplemental reading for neurology and behaviors spring semester 2003 class. In this articleRead MorePhysician Assisted Suicide Should Be The Choice Of The Patient2697 Words   |  11 PagesAbstract Physician assisted suicide is the process of ending one’s life with the administration of lethal injection with the assistance of a physician. Throughout the years, euthanasia has become a controversial topic, determining whether not it is ethical for a doctor to end a patient’s life. On one side of the argument, the negative term suicide creates this illusion of sin and many citizens believe that the task of ending one’s life should not be placed in the hands of a doctor. Doctors have aRead MorePhysician Assisted Suicide For Terminally Ill Patients1814 Words   |  8 Pagesbut there is an alternative option. Physician-assisted suicide continues to gain attention and is being legalized across the world. The process in the United States is slower, yet a few states have already authorized it. People undermine this option for unethical reasons; however, it enables a person in agonizing pain to end their life before becoming entirely incompetent. Doctors across the nation seek this practice in order to help the patients as well as their families; even though, they could beRead MorePhysician Assisted Suicide Is Not A Beneficial Treatment For Medical Patients1350 Words   |  6 PagesPhysician-Assisted Suicide Imagine having a relative with a terminal illness; perhaps this person feels that their only option is assisted-suicide. Now, put yourself into their shoes. Would you choose to live the rest of your days in pain, or would you choose to die with a sense of dignity? Physician-assisted suicide has been prohibited for many years and many physicians have given their input on the subject, enlightening many on the fundamentals of assisted-suicide; others have stated their opinionsRead MoreIs Euthanasia A Assisted Suicide Or Killing Of A Patient With A Terminal Illness?937 Words   |  4 Pagesmoral issue I decided to research about was euthanasia. Euthanasia is the assisted suicide or killing of a patient with a terminal illness. There are three types of euthanasia: voluntary euthanasia (euthanasia performed with the patient s consent), non-voluntary euthanasia (where the patient is unable to give their informed consent, for example child euthanasia), and involuntary euthanasia (which perf ormed on a patient against their will). Euthanasia is illegal in all states except for Oregon, VermontRead MoreEssay on Terminally Ill Patients and Physician Assisted Suicide468 Words   |  2 PagesTerminally Ill Patients and Physician Assisted Suicide For hundreds of years a doctor was sworn into practice with the Oath of Hippocrates. Although in the present time parts of the oath have oath has come into question on how they should be interrupted. To do no harm, the question is what does one consider harm? With our modern technology in medicine our medical community has the ability to prolong a persons life for quite awhile. So the question now is to prolong a persons life that

Sunday, December 22, 2019

What Is Deforestation and Global Warming - 994 Words

Global warming Global warming is when the earth heats up (the temperature rises). It happens when greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, water vapor, nitrous oxide, and methane) trap heat and light from the sun in the earth’s atmosphere, which increases the temperature. This hurts many people, animals, and plants. Many cannot take the change, so they die. The greenhouse effect is when the temperature rises because the sun’s heat and light is trapped in the earth’s atmosphere. This is like when heat is trapped in a car. On a very hot day, the car gets hotter when it is out in the parking lot. This is because the heat and light from the sun can get into the car, by going through the windows, but it can’t get back out. This is what the†¦show more content†¦Eventually, rain washes down the soil surfaces and erosion takes place. Soils never get their full potential back. Water cycle:- When forests are destroyed, the atmosphere, water bodies and the water table are all affected. Trees absorb and retain water in their roots. A large part of the water that circulates in the ecosystem of rainforests remains inside the plants. Some of this moisture is transpired into the atmosphere. When this process is broken, the atmosphere and water bodies begin to dry out. The watershed potential is compromised and less water will runs through the rivers. Smaller lakes and streams that take water from these larger water bodies dry up. PREVENTION:- Sometimes, we are overwhelmed by the extent of damage humans have caused, and we are not sure if an individual can make any impact. Well, yes, there are millions of people just like you, who are learning about the issue and taking little steps to help. Additionally, many governments, organisations and societies are making great strides in helping reducing deforestation, and encouraging forest plantation. But there is still a lot to do Due to the extent and nature of forest destruction; efforts to stop deforestation and preserve forests are best achieved at government and organization levels. This means that laws, rules and regulations from countries can help to enforce the preservation of forests. Laws on farming, timber and wood, as well as land use must beShow MoreRelatedDeforestation of Our Rainforests931 Words   |  4 PagesThe most destructive and harmful tragedy that our rainforests, specifically the Amazon, suffer from is deforestation. Deforestation is the clearing or destruction of land throughout forests. Unfortunately, human beings are the number one cause of deforestation throughout the world. The reason if this is simply because we use the wood mainly for things like hydroelectric dams that power communities, palm oil for its biofuel resourcefulness, and the mining for diamond and gold. Another reason wouldRead MoreGlobal Warming Is A Big Problem1320 Words   |  6 PagesGallos English 3 Global Warming Global warming is a big problem and impacts our environment in a negative way because it is heating the Earth. Global warming impacts all of the life around us even though not many people recognize it. There are many problems that global warming will make to our environment and it has already impacted it over time. Although, there are many problems, there are also solutions to stop global warming. Climate change is most closely related to global warming and many scientistsRead MoreHuman Activity Is Responsible For Our Current Warming Trend1598 Words   |  7 PagesHumans Are To Blame The biggest problem with climate change today is the debate on whether or not human activity is responsible for our current warming trend. According to Jonathon Schuldt (2014:219), around 99.7% of climatologists agree that man-made climate change is a reality, while only 40% of Americans believe that humans are the main driver. This is because we live in societies in which, thanks largely to the internet, everyone is free to express an opinion. On the issue of climate changeRead MoreGlobal Warming : Causes And Effects905 Words   |  4 Pagesfaced with, global warming. What is global warming? Well, global warming is a rise in the Earth s average atmospheric temperature that causes corresponding changes in climate and that may result from the greenhouse effect (which I will talk more about.) Which is when our ozone layer has a hole which gradually increases, and increases heat from the sun. This causes major problems such as the polar caps melting and increase of temperatures on Eart h. The number one cause of global warming is the largeRead MoreThe Role Of Anthropocene And Its Effects On The World1146 Words   |  5 Pagesin carbon dioxide levels. More than half of Earth s terrestrial surface has been altered due to human activity, resulting in drastic deforestation, erosion and loss of topsoil, biodiversity loss, and extinction (Marine Bio, 2016). Global warming is the biggest problem that Earth is facing at this moment. Some causes and effects of global warming are deforestation, ocean acidification, burning of fossil fuels, and greenhouse gas emissions. Through the burning of fossil fuels, we are reversing geologicalRead MoreGlobal Warming Is The Biggest Threat Facing The Country988 Words   |  4 Pagesmentioned that global warming is one of the urgent and growing threat to â€Å"national security†(Nakamura, 2015, para 1). Presidential contender/Senator/ Bernie Sanders also pointed out that â€Å"global warming, not terrorism or nuclear weapon proliferation or chinese hacking, is the biggest threat facing the country†(Follett, 2015, para 1). Global warming contribute to the death of 400,000 people a year and costing the world more than $1.2 trillion, which is about 1.6% of the annual global GDP (Harvey, 2012Read MoreThe Effects Of Fossil Fuels On The Environment1734 Words   |  7 PagesWhat we can be scientifically certain of is that our continued use of fossil fuels is pushing us to a point of no return, warns President Obama, â€Å"we are condemning future generations to global catastrophe.† The point of n o return metaphorically represents the place in ones journey that must be continued with no alternative routes or ability to make change. In consort with President Obama, many scientists believe the point of no return could occur if significant efforts aren’t made soon. AnthropogenicRead MorePaper Towels And Its Effects On The World891 Words   |  4 Pageslead to deforestation- conversion of forested regions to non-forest land for human use and industrial gain until I really need it. After a long look at the mirror, I smirked to myself and turned around settling my wet hands in my pants pocket so that they would dry till I reach my class. After a few days of attachment to the commitment, I realized that although it might be just a drop of water in an ocean but we can really minimize the consumption of products that lead to deforestation. For thatRead MoreHuman Activity Is Responsible For Our Current Warming Trend1471 Words   |  6 PagesThe biggest problem with clima te change today is the debate on whether or not human activity is responsible for our current warming trend. According to Jonathon Schuldt (2014:219), around 99.7% of climatologists agree that man-made climate change is a reality, while only 40% of Americans believe that humans are the main driver. This is because we live in societies in which, thanks largely to the internet, everyone is free to express an opinion. On the issue of climate change, we have tons of sitesRead MoreGlobal Warming : Deforestation Is A Serious Problem1717 Words   |  7 PagesGlobal Warming: Deforestation Global warming has become a serious problem for us, and the Earth itself. Global warming is when Earth’s temperature increases, due mainly to human activity and the greenhouse effect. This is affecting our atmosphere, causing an increase in temperature. This is mostly humans’ fault since we are the ones that contribute the most to global warming. Due to overpopulation, the demand for many of the things we use everyday have increased dramatically. Factories and the burning

Friday, December 13, 2019

The Kantian View of Animal Ethics Free Essays

Kant’s Ethics of Metaphysics: A Response To the Charge of Speciesism I. In this paper I will present the charge of speciesism contended by many animal right’s activists. I will attempt to substantiate Immanuel Kant’s view on animal morality and justify how his philosophy is not in violation of speciesism. We will write a custom essay sample on The Kantian View of Animal Ethics or any similar topic only for you Order Now Furthermore, I will explain how the Kantian view still grants animals some moral consideration through the designation of â€Å"indirect duties†. Lastly, I will present a difficulty with accepting the Kantian view of â€Å"indirect duties† towards animals. Moral quandaries regarding animals are still demanding the attention of many philosophers as they attempt to modify and inspect the relationship between morality and social policy. Contemporary applications of this issue can range from experimentations on animals for developing medicines (or even cosmetics) to whether human beings should avoid eating animal-based foods. There is a vast spectrum of moral issues that arise with respect to animals. However, most of the morally questionable situations are contingent on one fundamental question: do animals even have moral rights? And if so, to what extent? Although animal moral considerability has peaked the interest of many contemporary philosophers, such as James Rachels and Peter Singer, the question is really an age-old question that can be traced back to Plato and Aristotle. Immanuel Kant has probed the question of whether an animal has moral considerability. Kant continuously makes the distinction between humans and animals throughout his best-known contributions to moral philosophy. Therefore, I will address and present the counter-argument to the charge of speciesism, one of critical arguments of the animal rights movement, through a Kantian lens. II. One of the prevailing charges on humanity proposed by champions of animal rights is that humans act in violation of ‘speciesism’. The term, first coined by psychologist Richard Ryder in 1973, is used to describe an arbitrary bias that humans have towards their own species (Homo sapiens). The argument is as follows: to assign primacy to humans by considering only a human to be within the system of morality is similar to other types of discrimination, such as racism and sexism. Just as in racism and sexism the dominating force arbitrarily assumes itself as the normative ideal, in this case whites or males respectively, so too human beings arbitrarily assume themselves as the ideal and to be the only species deserving of morality. Therefore, because there is no legitimate basis for this distinction, other species of animals should be equally included within the system of morality. Ryder believes that those in violation of speciesism â€Å"overlook and underestimate the similarities between the discriminator (humans) and those discriminated against (animals or any other species). † His argument assumes that most animals are fundamentally the same. Of course those who charge humanity to be guilty of ‘speciesism’ acknowledge that there are obvious differences between humans and non-humans. They just believe these differences to be irrelevant for delineating the scope of a moral system. Man’s higher intelligence, being the most conspicuous difference, should have no authority on morality. If intelligence were the decisive factor then it would follow that people who are intellectually superior should be treated with superior moral standards. Moreover, some apes could potentially have more intelligence than a human if the human was insane or otherwise intellectually compromised. Thus, although intelligence is the distinguishing factor between most human beings and non-humans, it cannot be the sole criterion for defining a moral system . III. It would appear that aside from intelligence (that has no moral bearing) there is no fundamental quality that separates humans and non-humans. Therefore, animals really should be treated with equal moral standards, and those who do not equate moral rights are guilty of speciesism. Philosopher Michael Pollan challenges Kant with being in violation of arbitrary discrimination of animals; â€Å"none of these (Kant’s) argument evade the charge of speciesism† (pg 439 Vice and Virtue). So we are left with the daunting question: is there any validity to Pollan’s claim? At first it would appear that Kant presupposes human beings as the only species worthy of morality without giving any explanatory criterion. Kant evelops one of his foundational doctrines called â€Å"The Categorical Imperative†, which can be summarized in the following sentence: â€Å"Act in such a way that you treat humanity in such a way, whether in ourselves or in others, as an end in itself† (Groundwork II). It seems that Kant believes that human beings bar none deserve what he calls ‘respect’ or what we are calli ng moral consideration. However, after a closer examination it becomes apparent that Kant is not guilty of speciesism at all. In a remarkably similar excerpt Kant says, â€Å"as rational beings, we must always at the same time be valued as ends (pg 239 4:430). It is almost as if Kant just substituted the phrase humanity with rational beings. When both excerpts are read in conjunction it becomes apparent that Kant includes human beings into his moral system not because of an arbitrary nepotism towards his own kind (homo sapiens) but because of a human being’s attribute of rationality. In other words, Kant’s criterion for moral considerability is rationality and not intelligence. When Kant says to treat humanity in such a way, he is referring to a human’s rational nature, which happens to be the unique quality of human beings and is thus presented as rationality’s synonym. According to Kant, rationality is not the same as intelligence and is what makes human beings worthy of moral consideration and animals unworthy. Rationality is the ability to be governed autonomously and make advised decisions of what is right and wrong. It is not the ability to display reasoning skills. Therefore, a being, such as a chimpanzee with excellent cognitive abilities, cannot exercise rationality, which is Kant’s basis for morality. Human beings, on the other hand, belong to a ‘Kingdom of Ends’, where moral laws are meticulously chosen by each individual. This capability to discern and choose which laws have absolute moral worth binds all human beings in a cohesive moral community. Each member of this community has the authority to legislate and decide which laws are unconditional and then subsequently act in accordance with those laws. Not even the highest functioning chimpanzee has the capability to decide whether an action can be universally applied. Nor can a chimpanzee mull over the question â€Å"what ought I do? †. Thus it follows that a person only has obligations towards other beings that can obligate themselves, or act rationally. Kant chose rationality as the marker that defines the line of required morality because of its pureness. Rational knowledge is not influenced by history, anthropology or psychology. It is not qualified by emotion. Other potential values, such as intelligence, have the possibility of being used immorally; â€Å"Intelligence and wit are doubtless in many respects good and desirable but they can also become extremely harmful if the will†¦is not good (pg 231). † Consequently, a being’s rationality, the ability to decide whether an action is ‘good’ universally, is the only incorruptible value that could define the scope of morality.. Now that it is clear that Kant is not guilty of speciesism, since his moral system is predicated on the standard of rationality, one can still ask how Kantian Ethics views animals. Kantian Ethics prescribes indirect duties towards animals. This means that it is wrong to act maliciously towards animals because it will damage a person’s sympathies. Damaging ones sympathies will inevitability lead to a failure of ones duties to others. On the one hand, animals cannot be granted direct duties, for they lack rationality. Their moral value is categorized in a sort of limbo between inanimate objects and human beings. On a practical level, a Kantian might perform the same actions towards animals as a Utilitarian would. But Kantian Ethics is problematic for many philosophers, at least in theory. Christina Hoff offers an example where a â€Å"kind† man spends his life fulfilling his duties to himself and towards other human beings except he secretly burns stray dogs to death. Despite how disturbing and wrong this seems, Kantian ethics does not consider this man as having committed any wrongful action in and of itself. The suffering of the dogs is only problematic as it affects our duties to rational beings. It is difficult to challenge the Kantian view of animals on philosophical grounds. The Kantian moral system is consistent in that it is rooted in the assumption that rationality alone has absolute moral value. To challenge this assumption would involve dismantling Kant’s entire moral system by showing why rationality is inadequate as the supreme value. When Kant is concerned with damaging our sympathies he is only concerned in so far as sympathies ability to promote rationality and the ability to fulfill ones duties. He does not award sympathy any independent value. Yet, to allow, even if just in theory, the scenario of the man burning dogs seems against common morality. To be indifferent to an animals suffering is intuitively immoral. An animal rights champion would be more likely do adopt a Utilitarian view, which incorporates suffering into the fabric of its moral system. IV. Consequently, Kant can evade attempts to label him guilty of speciesism. Kantian ethics does have a criterion that differentiates humans and non-humans. With rationality as its hallmark, Kantian Ethics views animals as deserving of only indirect moral considerability. As Christine Korsgaard explains in her essay Kantian Ethics and Our Duties to Animals, â€Å"moral laws may be viewed as the laws legislated by all rational beings in the Kingdom of Ends (pg 5) Animals incidentally do not share this capacity for rationality. But if they did, they would surely be included. Interestingly, when referring to animals he ambiguously labels them as a human being’s analogue. Perhaps Kant was identifying that animals have similar qualities such as intelligence that link us together. But animals are analogues and not exactly similar. As such, Kant grants animals some moral considerabilitiy, through indirect duties, but not equal moral considerability. A being earns moral considerability only through the capacity to implement the Categorical Imperative and exercise an autonomous level of cognition, not through reasoning skills or mathematical abilities. Therefore, animals rightfully have moral limitations. Works Cited: 1)Ryder, Richard. â€Å"Richard Ryder: All Beings That Feel Pain Deserve Human Rights | World News | The Guardian. † Latest News, Sport and Comment from the Guardian | The Guardian. Web. 27 Dec. 2011. 2)Kant, Immanuel, and H. J. Paton. Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals. New York: Harper Row, 1964. Print. 3)Sommers, Christina, Frederic Tamler Sommers. Vice and Virtue in Everyday Life. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 2003. Print 4)Korsgaard, Christine M. â€Å"Fellow Creatures: Kantian Ethics and Our Duties to Animals. † Www. Tannerlectures. utah. edu. University of Utah Press Volume 25/26 . Web Author’s personal website 5)Sebo, Jeff. â€Å"A Critique of the Kantian Theory of Indirect Moral Duties to Animals. † Animal Liberation Philosophy and Policy Journal Volume II Pp. 1-14, 2004. Web. How to cite The Kantian View of Animal Ethics, Essay examples

Thursday, December 5, 2019

Chinese Women Rights Essay Example For Students

Chinese Women Rights Essay Chinese Women Rights Essay Even since the dramatic post-1949 changes in China regarding the role of women, China has remained paternalistic in its attitudes and social reality. Like many other states, China inescapably has been deeply involved in human rights politics at the international level in recent decades. During this period of time, the Chinese government has been increasingly active in participating in the international human rights regime. China has so far joined seventeen human rights conventions, the U.N. Human Rights Commission, and has expressed its respect for international human rights law. In 1997 China signed the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, and in 1998 China signed the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. The land reform, which was intended to create a more balanced economic force in marriage, was the beginning of governmental efforts to pacify women, with no real social effect. Communist China needed to address the woman question. Since women wanted more equality, and equality is doled out from the hands of those in power, capitalism was examined. The economic issues of repressed Chinese women were focused on the Land Act and the Marriage Act of 1950. The Land reform succeeded in eliminating the extended familys material basis and hence, its potential for posing as a political threat to the regime. Small-plots were redistributed to each family member regardless of age or sex; and land reform provisions stipulated that property would be equally divided in the case of divorce. Nonetheless, their husbands effectively controlled land allotted to women. Patriarchal familial relationships in the Confucian tradition seemed to remain intact. The Marriage Law of 1950 legalized marriage, denounced patriarchal authority in the household and granted both sexes equal rights to file for divorce. The second and most prominent element of the strategy was integrating women into economic development. The PRC ratified the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women in 1980 and enacted the Law on the Protection of Womens Rights and Interests in 1992. However, open discrimination against women in China has continued to grow during the period of reform of the last 15 years. According to PRC government surveys, womens salaries have been found to average 77% of mens, and most women employed in industry work in low-skill and low-paying jobs. An estimated 70 to 80% of workers laid off as a result of downsizing in factories have been women, and, although women make up 38% of the work force, they are 60% of the unemployed. At job fairs, employers openly advertise positions for men only, and university campus recruiters often state that they will not hire women. Employers justify such discrimination by saying that they cannot afford the benefits they are required to provide for pregnant women, nursing mothers and infants. The proportion of women to men declines at each educational tier, with women comprising some 25% of undergraduates in universities. Institutions of higher education that have a large proportion of female applicants, such as foreign language institutes, have been known to require higher entrance exam grades from women. Although China has a law mandating compulsory primary education, increasing numbers of rural girls are not being sent to school. Rural parents often do not want to waste money on school fees for girls who will belong to another family when they marry. According to official statistics, about 70% of illiterates in China are female. Womens employment was viewed as a prerequisite for emancipation from bourgeois structures as embodied in the patriarchal family. Furthermore, at the core of the CCPs strategy for political consolidation was economic reconstruction and rural development. The full participation of women was not only an ideological imperative but a pragmatic one. Third, the All-China Womens Federation (W.F.) was established by the CCP to mobilize women for economic development and social reform. Women did succeed in gaining materialistically. .u859aba0b3b414bf8c618625aa82c7cc4 , .u859aba0b3b414bf8c618625aa82c7cc4 .postImageUrl , .u859aba0b3b414bf8c618625aa82c7cc4 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u859aba0b3b414bf8c618625aa82c7cc4 , .u859aba0b3b414bf8c618625aa82c7cc4:hover , .u859aba0b3b414bf8c618625aa82c7cc4:visited , .u859aba0b3b414bf8c618625aa82c7cc4:active { border:0!important; } .u859aba0b3b414bf8c618625aa82c7cc4 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u859aba0b3b414bf8c618625aa82c7cc4 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u859aba0b3b414bf8c618625aa82c7cc4:active , .u859aba0b3b414bf8c618625aa82c7cc4:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u859aba0b3b414bf8c618625aa82c7cc4 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u859aba0b3b414bf8c618625aa82c7cc4 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u859aba0b3b414bf8c618625aa82c7cc4 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u859aba0b3b414bf8c618625aa82c7cc4 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u859aba0b3b414bf8c618625aa82c7cc4:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u859aba0b3b414bf8c618625aa82c7cc4 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u859aba0b3b414bf8c618625aa82c7cc4 .u859aba0b3b414bf8c618625aa82c7cc4-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u859aba0b3b414bf8c618625aa82c7cc4:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Life and Times of Alexander the Great Essay However, culture dictates whether these governmental attempts can be successful and China has proven that they were only panaceas for the real issue. Materialistic approaches could not shadow the issue of the view in Chinese society of the role of women. In the struggle for equality, China did not go to the women to find what they believed to .